Clostridium tetani, the bacteria that causes tetanus, lives in the soil. In spore form, it can remain infectious for more than 40 years. Infection occurs when the spores in the soil enter a wound site. The spores release bacteria that produce a toxin which blocks nerve signals from the spinal cord to the muscles. Severe muscle spasms result. The spasms can be so intense that muscles tear and vertebrae fracture.

Key Resources

This section contains Key Resources categorized by topic. Both students and teachers can use these resources in a number of different ways.

Body System Resources provide links to information on human body systems. These are also available in the Body Systems section in the top menu bar within the specific system section.

Disease and Condition Resources list sites for information on many different diseases, disorders, and injuries. Students may want to use these links to find reliable information for reports or projects.

Active Learning Resources and CBL and Teaching Resources are two sections that will interest teachers. These links can be used to find information not only for personal professional development, but also for preparing in-service or conference workshops and presentations.

Note: The Teacher Development section also has many resources for implementing problem-based and case-based learning in the classroom.

Free Materials for Teachers lists links to and describes free posters, lesson plans, learning guides, and DVDs on a variety of anatomy and physiology, biology, and health topics. In these times of limited budgets and cutbacks, these materials are a great way to enhance interest in biology and anatomy and physiology topics.

Although this section contains links to specific topics, the CyberSurgeons Research Center as a whole is a great resource for both teachers and students.