Liver fluke infestations occur repeatedly in some areas of the world because people eat traditional foods which can carry the parasites. Sometimes, people just take medicine to kill the fluke each year because they know they have it in their bodies.
Image: Fasciola hepatica, a liver fluke.
National Science Education Standards Addressed by CyberSurgeons Problem-based and Case-based Learning Modules
CyberSurgeons PBL and CBL modules can be incorporated into the classroom as a supplemental curriculum for students in grades 9-12 in classes such as anatomy and physiology, biology, or health. A module can build on a topic that is being studied or used as a stand-alone activity.
The curriculum builds upon the basic elements of biology to examine biomedical science and the processes used in clinical trials. All curriculum has been developed in alignment with the following National Science Education Standards:
Content Standard A:
Science As Inquiry, Understandings About Scientific Inquiry
Students will develop an understanding of the scientific processes involved in biomedical research as well as an appreciation for the effectiveness and efficiency of scientific inquiry and experimental methods.
• Develop an understanding of the scientific processes
• Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations
• Design scientific investigations
• Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence
• Recognize and analyse alternative explanations and models
• Communicate and defend a scientific argument
Content Standard C:
Students will investigate life science topics such as biology, anatomy, physiology, and human disease while immersed in PBL curricula. The broad spectrum of the scenario allows many biological topics to be studied; students must learn about cell structure to understand how the organism functions, or in a disease condition, does not function.
Content Standard E:
Science and Technology
• Gain an understand about science and technology.
• Become aware that scientists in different disciplines ask different questions, use different methods of investigation, and accept different types of evidence to support their explanations.
Content Standard F:
Science and Social Perspectives
• become aware of the hazardous conditions in which scientists can work and also become more aware of human disease conditions and their possible mediation by scientific research and technological innovations.
Students should develop understanding of:
Personal and Community Health
• Hazards and the potential for accidents exist. Regardless of the environment, the possibility of injury, illness, disability, or death may be present.
• The severity of disease symptoms is dependent on many factors, such as human resistance and the virulence of the disease-producing organism. Many diseases can be prevented, controlled, or cured. Some diseases, such as cancer, result from specific body dysfunctions and cannot be transmitted.
• Personal choice concerning fitness and health involves multiple factors. Personal goals, peer and social pressures, ethnic and religious beliefs, and understanding of biological consequences can all influence decisions about health practices.
• An individual's mood and behavior may be modified by substances. The modification may be beneficial or detrimental depending on the motives, type of substance, duration of use, pattern of use, level of influence, and short- and long-term effects. Students should understand that drugs can result in physical dependence and can increase the risk of injury, accidents, and death.
• Selection of foods and eating patterns determine nutritional balance. Nutritional balance has a direct effect on growth and development and personal well-being. Personal and social factors—such as habits, family income, ethnic heritage, body size, advertising, and peer pressure—influence nutritional choices.
Content Standard F:
Natural and Human-induced Hazards
Note: Only applicable if the cancer may have been induced or influenced by environmental conditions
Science and Technology in Local, National, and Global Challenges
• Individuals and society must decide on proposals involving new research and the introduction of new technologies into society. Decisions involve assessment of alternatives, risks, costs, and benefits and consideration of who benefits and who suffers, who pays and gains, and what the risks are and who bears them. Students should understand the appropriateness and value of basic questions—"What can happen?"—"What are the odds?"—and ''How do scientists and engineers know what will happen?"
Content Standard G
History and Nature of Science
Students should develop understanding of:
Science as a human endeavor
• Individuals and teams have contributed and will continue to contribute to the scientific enterprise. Doing science or engineering can be as simple as an individual conducting field studies or as complex as hundreds of people working on a major scientific question or technological problem. Pursuing science as a career or as a hobby can be both fascinating and intellectually rewarding.
• Scientists have ethical traditions. Scientists value peer review, truthful reporting about the methods and outcomes of investigations, and making public the results of work. Violations of such norms do occur, but scientists responsible for such violations are censured by their peers.
• Scientists are influenced by societal, cultural, and personal beliefs and ways of viewing the world. Science is not separate from society but rather science is a part of society.
Nature of scientific knowledge
• Scientific explanations must meet certain criteria. First and foremost, they must be consistent with experimental and observational evidence about nature, and must make accurate predictions, when appropriate, about systems being studied. They should also be logical, respect the rules of evidence, be open to criticism, report methods and procedures, and make knowledge public.
• Because all scientific ideas depend on experimental and observational confirmation, all scientific knowledge is, in principle, subject to change as new evidence becomes available.