Yellow fever is a viral disease mainly transmitted through the bite of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Image: Mosquito that carries yellow fever and dengue fever.
Steps to Working with Problem-based and Case-based Learning (Student Page)
1. Read and analyze the problem scenario. Check your understanding of the scenario by discussing it within your group. A group effort will probably be more effective in deciding what the key factors are in this situation. Because this is a real problem-solving situation, your group will need to actively search for the information necessary to solve the problem.
2. List what is known. Start a list in which you write down everything you know about this situation. Begin with the information contained in the scenario. Add knowledge that group members bring.
3. Develop a problem statement. A problem statement should come from your analysis of what you know. In one or two sentences you should be able to describe what it is that your group is trying to solve, produce, respond to, or find out. The problem statement may have to be revised as new information is discovered and brought to bear on the situation.
4. List what is needed. Prepare a list of questions you think need to be answered to solve the problem. Record them under a second list titled: "What do we need to know?" Several types of questions may be appropriate. Some may address facts or concepts that need to be learned in order to address the situation. These questions will guide searches that may take place on-line, in the library, or in other out-of-class searches.
5. List possible actions. List recommendations, solutions, or hypotheses under the heading: "What should we do?" List actions to be taken, e.g., question an expert, get on-line data, visit library.
6. Analyze information. Analyze information you have gathered. You may need to revise the problem statement. You may identify more problem statements. At this point, your group will likely formulate and test hypotheses to explain the problem. Some problems may not require hypotheses, instead a recommended solution or opinion (based on your research data) may be appropriate.
7. Present findings. Report your findings and recommendations or solutions. The product should include the problem statement, questions, data gathered, analysis of data, and support for solutions or recommendations based on the data analysis.
Note: The steps in this model may have to be performed several times. Steps two through five may be conducted simultaneously as new information becomes available. As more information is gathered, the problem statement may have to be refined or altered.
Source: Center of Educational Technologies (Classroom of the Future) Exploring the Environment website http://www.cotf.edu/ete