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    [view] => template
    [data] => Array
        (
            [title] => Bridge Project
            [body] => 

Bridge Project

[fastfacts] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [title] => Chickenpox [body] =>

Chickenpox is highly contagious before any blisters appear. Therefore, the disease can be spread before any measures can be taken to limit exposure.  

) [1] => Array ( [title] => River Blindness [body] =>

River blindness is caused by a worm that travels through the skin to lodge in the eye. It was a leading cause of blindness in third world countries until the World Health Organization (WHO) distributed massive amounts of Ivermectin, a drug that reduces the numbers of immature worms in the skin.

) [2] => Array ( [title] => Herpes Infections [body] =>

Herpes infections can make people more susceptible to HIV infection, and it can make HIV-infected individuals more infectious. Image: HIV on a white blood cell.

) [3] => Array ( [title] => River Blindness [body] =>



River blindness is hard to control because the disease-causing worms can live in a human for 10-15 years and female worms can reproduce millions of worms in a lifetime. Adult female worms can be more than one-half meter in length.  Image: Adult black fly-insect that carries river blindness worms.

) [4] => Array ( [title] => Liver Fluke [body] =>

Liver fluke infestations occur repeatedly in some areas of the world because people eat traditional foods which can carry the parasites. Sometimes, people just take medicine to kill the fluke each year because they know they have it in their bodies.
Image: Fasciola hepatica, a liver fluke.

) [5] => Array ( [title] => Exotoxins [body] =>

Some diseases are caused indirectly by an exotoxin (a poison) released by a bacteria, fungi, algae, or protozoan. Exotoxins damage the host by destroying cells or interfering with cell metabolism. They can cause major damage to the host organism.
Image: The bacteria Clostridium botulinum produces the botulism toxin.

) [6] => Array ( [title] => Reye's Syndrome [body] =>

Reye's syndrome has been associated with the use of aspirin to treat chickenpox or the flu in children and has caused a general recommendation NOT to use aspirin for treating any condition in children. Image: Aspirin tablets.

) [7] => Array ( [title] => Yellow Fever [body] =>

Yellow fever is a viral disease mainly transmitted through the bite of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Image: Mosquito that carries yellow fever and dengue fever.

) [8] => Array ( [title] => MRSA [body] =>

Cases of community associated MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) have increased in recent years. Once usually seen only in hospital settings, the infections now occur in groups of people, such as athletes, who share personal items such as towels or razors. Image: Electron microscope view of S. aureus.

) [9] => Array ( [title] => Tongue Piercing Complications [body] =>

Bacteria from tongue piercing infections can easily travel to other parts of the body, especially the heart. Many patients with tongue infections develop endocarditis—an infection of the heart lining.

) [10] => Array ( [title] => Alcohol and the Human Heart [body] =>

Alcohol has a poisonous effect on heart muscle tissue. The heart cannot pump efficiently and the lack of blood flow results in damage throughout the body.

) [11] => Array ( [title] => MRSA [body] =>

Factors increasing the chances of acquiring a Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureusinfection include cuts or abrasions in the skin, contaminated items, crowded living conditions and poor hygiene. Image: Staphylococcus aureuson culture media plate.

) [12] => Array ( [title] => Chlamydia [body] =>

Most people who have chlamydia, the most commonly reported sexually transmitted disease in the U.S.,  don’t know it since the disease often has no symptoms. Image: Chlamydia sp.cells.

) [13] => Array ( [title] => STDs [body] =>

Sexually active females 25 years and younger should be tested for STDs every year since many have no symptoms and can yet impact a woman’s future ability to have children if left untreated.

) [14] => Array ( [title] => Asthma [body] =>

In an asthma attack, your airways in your lungs sell and shrink. Less air gets in and out of your lungs, and mucus that your body makes clogs up the airways such as the bronchii even more. You may have coughing, chest tightness, wheezing, and trouble breathing. Image: Structure of a bronchus.

) [15] => Array ( [title] => Corneal Ulcer [body] =>

Ulcers on the cornea (the clear window covering of the eye) can occur if contact lens are worn while sleeping, if they are not cleaned properly, or if you do not wash your hands well before touching your contacts. Corneal ulcers are usually caused by an infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or a parasite. Although you can recover completely from a corneal infection, it may also cause long-term damage to the cornea and loss of vision

) [16] => Array ( [title] => Asthma [body] =>

Asthma attacks can be triggered by irritants in your environment, such as tobacco smoke, dust mites, outdoor pollution, cockroaches and their droppings, pets, mold, respiratory infections, food additives, and strenuous exercise. If you have asthma, finding your “trigger” can help you avoid attacks.

) [17] => Array ( [title] => Human Papilloma Virus [body] =>

Warts are growths on your skin cause by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Types of warts are common warts (on your fingers), plantar warts (on the soles of your feet), genital warts (a sexually transmitted disease), and flat warts (in places where you shave frequently). 
Image: Warts.

) [18] => Array ( [title] => Diabetes [body] =>

According to the CDC, 25.8 million people in the U.S. have diabetes. Image: Blood test device

) [19] => Array ( [title] => Diabetes [body] =>



Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, non-traumatic lower limb amputations, and new cases of blindness among adults in the United States.

Image: Senor woman's diabetic foot

) [20] => Array ( [title] => Blood Pressure [body] =>

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Your (systolic) pressure is higher when your heart pumps blood through an artery; when your heart rests, the (diastolic) pressure is lower.

) [21] => Array ( [title] => Asthma [body] =>

Asthma is one of the most common lung diseases of children, but adults have asthma, too. Asthma causes repeated episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and nighttime or early morning coughing.

) [22] => Array ( [title] => Diabetes [body] =>



Diabetes is a major cause of heart disease and stroke and the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.

) [23] => Array ( [title] => Fetal Alcohol Syndrome [body] =>

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders are 100% preventable if a woman does not drink alcohol during pregnancy. There is no known safe amount of alcohol to drink while pregnant. There is also no safe time during pregnancy to drink and no safe kind of alcohol.

) [24] => Array ( [title] => Tattoo Health Risks [body] =>

The health risks of tattoos include allergic reactions, keloid scar tissue, and infections such as hepatitis. If you are going to get a tattoo, be aware of the risks, make sure you go to a clean, reputable facility and check for proper sterilization techniques.

) [25] => Array ( [title] => Fetal Alcohol Syndrome [body] =>

When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, so does her baby. Alcohol passes through the placenta to the baby through the umbilical cord. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the child.

) [26] => Array ( [title] => Herpes [body] =>



Genital herpes
is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). Most infected people have no or only minimal symptoms. You can catch genital herpes from a partner who has no symptoms at all. image: Herpes Simplex Virus

) [27] => Array ( [title] => MRSA [body] =>

Never attempt to treat a MRSA  skin infection or an infection that you think may be MRSA by yourself. You may worsen the infection or spread it to others. Image: Rupured MRSA abscess.

) [28] => Array ( [title] => Fetal Alcohol Syndrome [body] =>

A person with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder may have abnormal facial features, small head size, poor coordination, learning disabilities, low IQ, vision problems, and problems with the heart, kidneys, and bones.

) [29] => Array ( [title] => Herpes [body] =>



You can get genital herpes even if your partner shows no signs of the infection.
There is no cure for herpes, but treatment is available to reduce symptoms and decrease the risk of transmission to a partner. Image: Herpes Simplex Pap Test

) [30] => Array ( [title] => Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease [body] =>



Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common childhood disease caused by an enterovirus. Usually a very mild infection, a strain of the virus, Enterovirus 71, infected more than 23,000 and killed 70. The more serious strain can lead to paralysis, brain swelling, and death.

) [31] => Array ( [title] => Chronic Bronchitis [body] =>

Chronic bronchitis is another form of COPD—Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. COPD can develop from smoking. At the end stages of COPD, breathing is very difficult. Breathing tubes and mechanical ventilation may be needed.

) [32] => Array ( [title] => Herpes [body] =>

Most people infected with Herpes simplex virus type 2 are not aware of their infection. Most either never have sores, or the sores are so mild they don’t even notice them, or they mistake them for insect bites. They can, however, pass the virus to other people.

) [33] => Array ( [title] => Rabies [body] =>



If an animal bite is a puncture wound, it has a better chance of being infected. Rabies is a potentially fatal disease spread through the saliva of an infected animal. There is no cure for rabies once symptoms develop, but there is an effective vaccine if you get treatment before symptoms appear.

) [34] => Array ( [title] => MRSA risk [body] =>

The biggest risk factor for Methicillin Resistant Staph aureus infection is open or broken skin, but MRSA infections can occur even on areas of the skin where there is no obvious wound.  If you think you might have a MRSA infection, cover the infected skin, wash your hands, and see your doctor for testing or treatment. Image: An open wound susceptible to MRSA infection.

) [35] => Array ( [title] => Heart Disease [body] =>

Heart disease is the #1 killer in the U.S. The most common type of heart disease is the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, blood vessels that supply blood to the heart. This coronary artery disease is the main cause of heart attacks.
Image: Ruptured aorta damaged from heart disease.

) [36] => Array ( [title] => Blood Pressure [body] =>

Normal blood pressure readings are 120/80 or lower; a BP reading of 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure, or hypertension; between 120 and 139 for the top number or between 80 and 89 for the bottom number is prehypertension. Image:  Blood pressure cuff and stethoscope.

) [37] => Array ( [title] => Cholesterol [body] =>



Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance produced for you by your liver and important in many metabolic reactions. You need some cholesterol to work properly, but if you have too much in the blood, it can stick to the walls of your arteries and cause coronary artery disease (narrowing or blockage of the arteries)

) [38] => Array ( [title] => Smoking and COPD [body] =>



Cigarette smoking is the #1 cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Breathing in tobacco irritants causes your airways and air sacs to lose their shape and become floppy, like stretched-out balloons, making breathing difficult.

) [39] => Array ( [title] => Type 1 Diabetes [body] =>

If you have diabetes, your blood glucose or sugar levels are too high. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas which lowers blood glucose by helping the glucose get into your cells for energy. With Type 1 diabetes, your body does not make enough insulin and therefore too much glucose stays in the blood. Image: Insulin vials.

) [40] => Array ( [title] => Acne [body] =>

Acne is a common skin condition that causes pimples. Pimples form when hair follicles under your skin clog up. Most pimples form on the face, neck, back, chest and shoulders. Anyone can get acne, but it is common in teenagers and young adults.
Image: Illustration of Acne Pimple

) [41] => Array ( [title] => Skin [body] =>



Your skin is the largest organ of your body. It weighs between 6 and 9 pounds and is about 2 square yards in volume. 

) [42] => Array ( [title] => Tonsils and Adenoids [body] =>

 Have you had to get your tonsils or adenoids removed? Both are part of your lymphatic system and help protect you from infection by trapping microbes entering your body through your mouth or nose. 

) [43] => Array ( [title] => Gas [body] =>

Most people produce about 1 to 4 pints of gas a day and pass gas about 14 times a day. Passing gas through the mouth is called belching or burping. Passing gas through the rectum is called flatulence. 

) [44] => Array ( [title] => Gas in Your Digestive Tract [body] =>



The gas in your digestive tract comes from the air. Some foods you eat cause more gas than others. Drinking lots of water and non-fizzy drinks and chewing food more to lessen the amount of air you swallow when you eat can help reduce gas. If you are lactose intolerance, milk products will make you more gassy.

) [45] => Array ( [title] => Conjunctivitis [body] =>



Conjunctivitis is an eye infection also known as pinkeye. It is very contagious and if you have to treat one eye with antibiotic drops, the doctor will usually tell you to treat the other eye also as the infection will no doubt travel to the other eye quickly. Image: An eye with acute conjunctivitis.

) [46] => Array ( [title] => Flatuence [body] =>



Flatuence (gas passed through the rectum) has an odor because bacteria in the large intestine also release small amounts of gases that contain sulfur. 

) [47] => Array ( [title] => High Blood Pressure [body] =>



High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, but it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, heart attack and kidney failure. 

) [48] => Array ( [title] => Stye [body] =>



A stye is a bump on the eyelid that occurs when bacteria from your skin get into the hair follicle of an eyelash.

) [49] => Array ( [title] => Injuries [body] =>



Injuries are the leading cause of death and disability for people aged 1 to 44 years in the United States.  Approximately 72% of all deaths among adolescents aged 10-24 years are attributed to injuries from only four causes: motor vehicle crashes (30%), all other unintentional injuries (15%), homicide (15%), and suicide (12%).(CDC) 

) [50] => Array ( [title] => Lead Poisoning [body] =>



Young children tend to chew on just about anything in their environment. When these items contain lead, they can permanent suffer the effects of lead poisoning.  Lead poisoning can cause permanent reduced IQ, slowed body growth, hearing problems, attention problems, failure at school and kidney damage. Make sure a child’s environment is free of all sources of lead to prevent lead poisoning. Image: Atypical cells of patient with lead poisoning. 

) [51] => Array ( [title] => Smoking and Cataracts [body] =>



Smoking increases the risk of developing cataracts. Cataracts are the clouding of the lens in your eye.  Blurry vision, colors that seem to fade, not being about to see well at night, and double vision can result. 

) [52] => Array ( [title] => Eye Protection from UV Rays [body] =>



If you are going to be out in the sun for long periods of time, you should wear protective sunglasses to reduce the amount of UV rays emitted into the eye. Long-term exposure to ultraviolet rays increases the risk of cataract formation.

) [53] => Array ( [title] => Diabetes and Insulin [body] =>



Diabetes is a condition of having high levels of sugar in the blood caused when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin.  Insulin is a hormone that lowers the amount of sugar in the blood by allowing the body's cells to uptake the glucose supplied to them.

) [54] => Array ( [title] => Kidney Stones [body] =>



Kidney stones are solid masses made up of minerals that form in the kidney and interfere with kidney function. They can be painful and are either passed naturally through urinary release, broken up with lasers, and then passed, or removed surgically.

) [55] => Array ( [title] => Kidney Stone Composition [body] =>



Depending on the type of mineral that forms a kidney stone in a particular patient, dietary changes can lessen the probability of subsequent episodes. Consuming an increased amount of water and juices keeps urine dilute and will help prevent a concentration of minerals which may lead to kidney stone formation.

) [56] => Array ( [title] => Cystitis [body] =>



Cystitis is a bacterial infection of the bladder or lower urinary tract. It should be treated promptly with antibiotics so the infection does not “climb” up the urinary system to the kidneys. Image: Increased white cells in the urine of a patient with cystitis.

) [57] => Array ( [title] => Tetanus [body] =>



Clostridium tetani, the bacteria that causes tetanus, lives in the soil. In spore form, it can remain infectious for more than 40 years. Infection occurs when the spores in the soil enter a wound site. The spores release bacteria that produce a toxin which blocks nerve signals from the spinal cord to the muscles. Severe muscle spasms result. The spasms can be so intense that muscles tear and vertebrae fracture.

) [58] => Array ( [title] => Taking Antibiotics [body] =>



You should always finish all antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor (even if you are feeling better) to make sure all the bacteria causing the infection are killed and to prevent the development of bacterial resistance.

) [59] => Array ( [title] => Tetanus and Puncture Wounds [body] =>



Many people believe tetanus is a disease caused by injury from a rusty nail. It is not the rust on the nail that causes an infection. Injuries with nails are usually puncture-type wounds. This makes infection more likely because even if the wound is cleaned, bacteria can be too deep in the tissues to be removed. Image: Puncture wound from a dart.

) [60] => Array ( [title] => Toxic Shock Syndrome [body] =>



Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by certain types of Staphylococcus bacteria. It can be deadly in up to 50% of cases and can be fatal within hours. Those who do survive may have lasting effects from the disease or organ failure and are also more likely to get the disease again in the future. 

) [61] => Array ( [title] => Sunburns and Skin Cancer [body] =>



A history of one or more sunburns (an indicator of intense UV exposure) in childhood or adolescence has been found to increase the risk of developing basal cell carcinoma and melanoma as an adult.

) [62] => Array ( [title] => Cases of toxic shock syndrome [body] =>

Toxic shock syndrome has been linked to tampon use. The numbers of infection have decreased in recent years after sharp increases apparently due to the development of extra-absorbency materials in tampons. Extra-absorbency material use in tampons has been discontinued.   

) [63] => Array ( [title] => Leading Preventable Cause of Death [body] =>



Tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, cigar smoking, and smokeless tobacco use, remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. (CDC)

) [64] => Array ( [title] => Childhood UV Exposure [body] =>



More than half of a person's lifetime UV exposure typically occurs during childhood and adolescence. Childhood is the most important time for developing moles, an important risk factor for skin cancer. 

) [65] => Array ( [title] => Serious Health Problems from Smoking [body] =>



Cigarette smoking by young people leads to immediate and serious health problems including respiratory and non-respiratory effects, addiction to nicotine, and the associated risk of other drug use.

) [66] => Array ( [title] => Smokeless Tobacco and Cancers [body] =>



Use of smokeless tobacco causes cancers of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus, gum recession, and an increased risk for heart disease and stroke.

) [67] => Array ( [title] => Sun Exposure in Childhood [body] =>



Too much sun exposure in childhood increases the risk of melanoma.  

) [68] => Array ( [title] => Types of Diabetes [body] =>



There are three types of diabetes: 1) Type 1 diabetes occurs mostly in children when the body produces little or no insulin. The condition is treated with daily injections of insulin. 2) Type 2 diabetes is more common than Type 1 and usually occurs in adults. It often occurs with a lack of exercise and increasing obesity and can be treated with oral medication. 3) Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy.  

) [69] => Array ( [title] => The Most Common Type of Cancer [body] =>



Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer, and new cases and deaths from melanoma, the deadliest form, have been increasing dramatically. Effective sun protection is practiced by less than one-third of U.S. youth. Image:  A malignant melanoma. 

) [70] => Array ( [title] => Deaths From Smoking [body] =>



Each year cigarette smoking accounts for approximately 1 of every 5 deaths, or about 443,000 people. Cigarette smoking results in 5.1 million years of potential life lost in the United States annually. (CDC)

) [71] => Array ( [title] => Scoliosis [body] =>



Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine and usually develops during childhood, if it develops at all. The warning signs of scoliosis in children include shoulders and waist that appear uneven, very prominent shoulder blades, hips that appear elevated, and a posture that leans to one side. Image: Measurement of curvature of the spine. 

) [72] => Array ( [title] => Addictive Nicotine [body] =>



Studies have found nicotine to be addictive in ways similar to heroin, cocaine, and alcohol. Of all addictive behaviors, cigarette smoking is the one most likely to become established during adolescence.

) [73] => Array ( [title] => Daily New Smokers [body] =>

 Each day in the United States, approximately 3,600 young people between the ages of 12 and 17 years begin cigarette smoking, and an estimated 1,100 young people become daily cigarette smokers. (CDC)

) [74] => Array ( [title] => Farsightedness vs Nearsightedness [body] =>

Farsightedness is greater difficulty seeing near objects than seeing distant objects. Nearsightedness is greater difficulty seeing distant object than seeing near objects.  Both are caused when light entering the pupil does not focus correctly on the retina. Corrective lens (glasses or contact lens) can improve vision for someone with either condition.

) [75] => Array ( [title] => Secondhand Smoke [body] =>



There is no risk-free level of secondhand smoke exposure. Even brief exposure can be dangerous. Don’t let someone tell you that smoking around you won’t hurt you.

) [76] => Array ( [title] => Sports Injuries [body] =>

Over half of all sports injuries are knee injuries. Torn ligaments and cartilage occur most often. Aches and pains of the kneecap are grouped into a category of “runner’s knee” although these injuries are also seen in cyclists, swimmers, and football, basketball, and volleyball players. Image: Right knee joint from the front.

) [77] => Array ( [title] => Tattoo Infections [body] =>

If you are thinking of getting a tattoo, remember that bacteria can be passed from the tattoo artist to the customer, from the tool to the customer, or from the customer to themselves when the skin is broken for the tattoo. Serious infections can result.

) [78] => Array ( [title] => Secondhand Smoke and Children [body] =>

Children are most affected by secondhand smoke. Their bodies are still developing and exposure to the toxins in secondhand smoke puts them at risk for severe respiratory diseases and may hinder the growth of their lungs.

) [79] => Array ( [title] => Tennis Elbow [body] =>

Tennis elbow is the degeneration of the tendon in the elbow due to repeated backhand strokes in tennis. If you play tennis or other sports that apply stress to ligaments and tendons, perform tendon-strengthening exercises, wear a brace on your elbow or affected body part, and apply ice packs and take oral pain relievers if pain persists. If these treatments do not help, you may have to take a break from the sport until the tendon heals. 

) [80] => Array ( [title] => Tattoos and HIV [body] =>

There is a risk of HIV transmission while getting a tattoo if tattoo personnel do not use safe tattoo practices, such as sterilizing or disinfecting all instruments between customers. For that reason, the CDC (Center for Disease Control) recommends single-use instruments.

) [81] => Array ( [title] => Emphysema [body] =>

Emphysema is a debilitating lung disease primarily caused by smoking. Chemicals in the tobacco form a crust over air sacs in the lungs over time and the victim cannot completely inhale or exhale. They cannot get enough oxygen and therefore, struggle for breath even when they are not active.

) [82] => Array ( [title] => Tattoo Makeup [body] =>

Tattoo inks are regarded as cosmetics. They are not regulated or approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Also, the dyes used in tattoo inks aren’t approved for injection. Long-term effects of these dyes and inks are not known.

) [83] => Array ( [title] => HIV-AIDS [body] =>

There is no cure for HIV/AIDS. Although a variety and combination of anti-viral drugs may control the growth of the virus, success is different for each patient. Medicines have to be strictly taken as prescribed viral loads and blood cell counts have to be monitored regularly. 

) [84] => Array ( [title] => ABCDs of Skin Cancer [body] =>

Remember the ABCD’s of skin cancer:  A–asymmetrical, B–irregular border; C–color varies throughout, D–diameter is larger than 6 millimeters. See a doctor about any skin growth that falls within any of the ABCDs of skin cancer.

) [85] => Array ( [title] => Concussion [body] =>

A concussion is a brain injury usually caused by a blow to the head. Symptoms include headache, dizziness, amnesia, loss of balance, blurry vision, nausea, and vomiting. It does not necessarily mean a loss of consciousness. Repeated concussions (as in sports injuries) can cause permanent brain damage.

) [86] => Array ( [title] => Whooping cough [body] =>

Whopping cough (pertussis) is caused by the Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis bacteria.  It is very contagious and can cause permanent disabilities or even death in infants. The DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis) vaccine shots begin in infancy. People of every age can get whooping cough. Some medical organizations recommend that adults can receive the vaccination up to age 65.

) [87] => Array ( [title] => Ringworm [body] =>

Ringworm is a skin infection caused by a fungus, not a worm. Ringworm can occur anywhere on the body; the ringworm of the groin area (tinea cruris) is jock itch while ringworm on the feet (tinea pedis) is athlete’s foot. It is very contagious and can be passed to another person through contact with infected clothing, combs, and surfaces in pools, showers, or bath floors. 

) [88] => Array ( [title] => Shin Splints [body] =>

 

Shin splints are caused by the inflammation of the muscles that surround the skin. They are painful and result when people increase their workouts too fast, wear worn-out shoes, or jump or run on hard surfaces without proper shoe support. Cross-training, stretching, and wear good support shoes can help prevent shin splints.

) [89] => Array ( [title] => Measles [body] =>

Measles is highly contagious (easily spreads). The viral infection is spread by contact with droplets from the nose, mouth, or throat of an infected person. Symptoms occur from 8—12 days after exposure (the incubation period). A vaccination against measles is available. 

) [90] => Array ( [title] => The Small Intestine [body] =>

The human small intestine begins at the pyloric valve near the stomach and ends at the colic valve of the large intestine. It is about 7 meters long and is a convoluted tube in the lower abdomen. 

) [91] => Array ( [title] => The Pituitary Gland [body] =>

The human pituitary gland is about the size of a pea, weighs about 0.5g and is located at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. Despite its small size it has two lobes the anterior and the posterior) which each secrete important metabolic hormones.

) [92] => Array ( [title] => Alcohol Impairment [body] =>

A person who drinks heavily over a long period of time may have brain damage that persists well after he or she no longer drinks. Alcohol can produce impairments in memory after only a few drinks and, as the amount of alcohol increases, so does the degree of impairment. 

) [93] => Array ( [title] => Alcohol Use and Brain Shrinkage [body] =>

 Using imaging with computerized tomography, studies compared brain shrinkage, a common indicator of brain damage, in alcoholic men and women and reported that male and female alcoholics both showed significantly greater brain shrinkage than non-alcoholics.  Studies also showed that both men and women have similar learning and memory problems as a result of heavy drinking.

) [94] => Array ( [title] => Alcoholism and WKS Disease [body] =>

Up to 80 percent of alcoholics have a deficiency in thiamine and some of these people will go on to develop serious brain disorders such as Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). WKS is a disease that consists of two separate syndromes, a short–lived and severe condition called Wernicke’s encephalopathy and a long–lasting and debilitating condition known as Korsakoff’s psychosis.

) [95] => Array ( [title] => Avoid Ringworm [body] =>

If you want to avoid ringworm infections, keep your skin clean and dry. Bathe regularly after sports activities, launder your clothes after each use, and launder clothes of an infected family member separately to avoid the dirt and sweat that may contain the fungus. 

) ) [careers] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [title] => Allergist and Immunologist [body] =>

Physicians who help prevent and treat diseases affecting the immune system. They perform allergen tests such as skin pricks and patch tests to identify allergic and immune response disorders.

Average Salary     $166,400

Education-Years After High School   8+ (doctoral or other post-graduate degree)

Job Outlook         Excellent 

) [1] => Array ( [title] => Anesthesiologist [body] =>

Anesthesiologists are doctors who administer anesthetics prior to, during, or after surgery or other medical procedures. They may use local, intravenous, spinal or caudal methods. They must monitor patients before, during, and after anesthesia and counteract complications.

Average Salary    $166,400

Education-Years After High School    8+ (doctoral or other post-graduate degree)

Job Outlook      Excellent

) [2] => Array ( [title] => Medical Transcriptionist [body] =>

Type medical reports that have been audio-recorded by physicians and other healthcare practitioners using various electronic devices. Transcriptionists convert dictated reports with jargon and abbreviations into fully understandable forms. They edit as necessary and return reports in either printed or electronic form for review and signature. 

Average Salary     $32,900

Education-Years After High School  2-year associate’s degree or 1-year certificate program

Job Outlook      Average 

) [3] => Array ( [title] => Laboratory Technician [body] =>

Perform medical lab tests for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Tests include chemical analyses of body fluids (blood, urine) using microscope or automatic analyzers and blood tests for transfusion and determing blood cell counts. Lab technicians also prepare and examine stained cells for abnormalities.

Average Salary     $36,280

Education-Years After High School  2 year associate degree

Job Outlook     Good 

) [4] => Array ( [title] => Laboratory Technologist [body] =>

Perform complex medical lab tests for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Operate, calibrate and maintain equipment such as spectrophotometers, calorimeters, flame photometers, or computer-controlled analyzers. Lab technologists conduct chemical analysis of body fluids such as blood, urine, or spinal fluid, to determine presence of normal or abnormal components and to determine the number of cells.

Average Salary     $56,130

Education-Years After High School   4 years Bachelors of Science degree

Job Outlook      Average 

) [5] => Array ( [title] => Pediatrician [body] =>

Prescribe and administer treatments, medications, vaccinations, and specialized medical care to prevent or treat illness, disease and injury in infants and children. 

Average Salary    $155,370

Education-Years After High School    8+ (completing medical school and internship)

Job Outlook     Excellent 

) [6] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Surgeon [body] =>

Physicians who treat diseases, injuries, and deformities by surgical methods. Surgeons analyze patients’ medical history, medication allergies, physical condition and lab results to determine the best surgical procedure and post-op care.  

Average Salary    $166,400

Education-Years After High School    8+ (completing medical school and internship)

Job Outlook     Excellent

) [7] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Internist [body] =>

A physician who collects, records, and maintains medical histories and exams and analyses them as needed to prevent, diagnose and treat illnesses and internal disorders, such as hypertension, heart disease, or diabetes. They provide long-term comprehensive medical care. 

Average Salary    $166,400

Education-Years After High School    8+ (completing medical school and internship)

Job Outlook    Excellent 

) [8] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Licensed Practical Nurse [body] =>

LPN’s care for ill, injured, or convalescing patients in hospitals, nursing homes, or clinics. They may work under the supervision of a registered nurse to provide basic patient care or treatments, such as dressing wounds, dispensing medications and recording vital signs. 

Average Salary     $40,380

Education-Years After High School   1-2 year associate programs

Job Outlook       Excellent 

) [9] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Registered Nurse [body] =>

Assess patient health problems, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records. They consult and coordinate with healthcare team members to evaluate patient conditions and may supervise a medical unit within a hospital. 

Average Salary    $64,690

Education-Years After High School    2-4 years

Job Outlook     Excellent 

) [10] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Obstetrician [body] =>

Physicians who care for women before, during, and after pregnancy and childbirth. They provide education and advice to maintain a healthy pregnancy, treat problem-pregnancy conditions, and deliver babies by surgical and non-surgical methods.  

Average Salary    $166,400 Median

Education-Years in School   8-10 (college degree+medical school+experience in obstetrics)

Job Outlook     Excellent

) [11] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Gynecologist [body] =>

Physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases unique to women. They examine test results, prescribe therapy and medication, and perform surgeries. 

Average Salary     $166,400 Median

Education-Years After High School   8-10 (college degree+medical school+experience in surgery)

Job Outlook     Excellent 

) [12] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Nurse Midwife [body] =>

A healthcare professional who supervises all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth. They perform physical exams, document the pregnancy, monitor fetal heartbeats, take uterine measurements, identify fetal positions, and record fetal size and weight. 

Average Salary    $64,690

Education-Years After High School   4-8+ years (most require graduate school training and experience)

Job Outlook     Good 

) [13] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Preventative Medicine Physicians [body] =>

Physicians who promote healthcare to groups or individuals and aid in the prevention or reduction or risk of disease, injury, disability or death. They practice population-based medicine and treat patients in the clinical health setting and coordinate resources of social service agencies and other organizations.  

Average Salary    $166,400

Education-Years After High School   6-12+ (college degree+medical degree+work experience in field)

Job Outlook       Excellent 

) [14] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Medical Scientist [body] =>

Conduct research to understand human diseases and improve human health. They perform clinical investigations and research to develop instrumentation, procedures, and treatments for disease. 

Average Salary    $76,700

Education-Years After High School  8+ (college degree+medical or doctoral degree+work experience in field)

Job Outlook      Excellent

) [15] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Epidemiologist [body] =>

Investigate and describe the causes and distribution of diseases, disabilities, or health conditions and study ways for prevention and control. They monitor and report incidents of infectious diseases to local and state health departments and educate workers, patients and the general public about communicable diseases. 

Average Salary    $63,010

Education-Years After High School    4-8 (college-doctoral degree)

Job Outlook     Good

) [16] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Physician Assistant [body] =>

Perform healthcare duties of a physician, under the supervision of a physician. They conduct patient exams, make diagnoses, provide treatment, and prescribe medication. They provide basic healthcare services, give injections, suture wounds, order tests, and report back to the supervising physician. 

Average Salary    $86,410

Education-Years After High School    4-8 (college degree-doctoral degree)

Job Outlook     Excellent

) [17] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Physical Therapist [body] =>

Plan and administer rehab programs to improve patient movements, relieve pain, increase strength, and correct disabilities from disease or injury. PTs perform physical tests, measure motor functions and recommend physical therapies such as exercises or traction. 

Average Salary    $76,310

Education-Years After High School   4-8 (college degree-doctoral degree)

Job Outlook     Excellent

) [18] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Occupational Therapist [body] =>

Plan and administer rehab programs to build or restore vocational, homemaking, or daily living skills for patients with disabilities. OTs evaluate patients physical and mental abilities to determine rehab goals and help patients learn work and life skills within their limits. 

Average Salary     $76,320

Education-Years After High School    4-8 (college degree-doctoral degree)

Job Outlook     Excellent 

) [19] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Speech Language Pathologists [body] =>

Assist in the treatment of speech, language, and voice disorders. They work under the supervision of a speech pathologist to perform tests, implement therapies, and maintain patient records.  They also conduct in-service training sessions or family and community education programs.

Average Salary    $62,930

Education-Years After High School   1-6 (some college-masters degree)

Job Outlook     Good

) [20] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Speech Pathologist Assistant [body] =>

Assist in the treatment of speech, language, and voice disorders. They work under the supervision of a speech pathologist to perform tests, implement therapies, and maintain patient records. They also conduct in-service training sessions or family and community education programs.

Average Salary    $48,230

Education-Years After High School    1-6 (some college-masters degree)

Job Outlook    Good

) [21] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Audiologist [body] =>

Work with people who have hearing, balance, and related ear problems. They identify symptoms of hearing loss and use audiometers, computers, and testing devices to evaluate patient conditions and recommend a course of treatment. 

Salary      $50,470 - $78,380

Education Past High School        4 years college + 4 years or more for doctorate

Job Outlook    Much faster than average 

) [22] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Cardiovascular technician [body] =>

Assist physicians in diagnosing and treating cardiac (heart) and blood vessel problems. The review patient files, monitor heart rates, operate and care for testing equipment, explain test procedures, and specialize in electrocardiograms and stress testing. 

Salary    $32,800 - $61,580

Education Past High School             2-4 years

Job Outlook     Much faster than average

) [23] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Chiropractor [body] =>

Diagnose and treat patients with health problems of the musculoskeletal system and recommend  treatments. They record patient histories and conduct physical exams.  Treatments include adjustments to the spinal column and heat, water, and massage therapies, and acupuncture therapy. They do not prescribe drugs or perform surgery.

Salary     $45,540 - $96,700

Education Past High School           2-4 years college + 4 years-Doctor of Chiropractic

Job Outlook       Faster than the average occupation

) [24] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Dental Assistant [body] =>

Work under the supervision of a dentist to sterilize and disinfect dental instruments and equipment, obtain and update patient records, prepare patients for treatment, and instruct patients on oral health care. They may also prepare materials for impressions, process dental x-rays, and perform a variety of office duties.

Salary    $26,980 - $38,960

Education Past High School        0-2 years, some states require licensure

Job Outlook      Much faster than average  

) [25] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Dentist [body] =>

Diagnose and treat problems with teeth, remove tooth decay, fill cavities, examine x-rays, apply sealants, extract teeth, and repair fractured teeth.  They use x-ray machines, drills mirrors, probes, forceps and computer technologies  to correct dental problems.

Salary    $142,870

Education Past High School            2-4 years college + 4 years dental school + License

Job Outlook     Faster than average

) [26] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Dental Hygienist [body] =>

Remove soft and hard deposits from teeth, instruct patients on good oral hygiene, examine teeth and gums, and use hand and rotary instruments to clean and polish teeth. They also take x-rays, develop x-ray films, and apply fluoride treatments and sealants.

Salary   $55,220 - $78,990

Education Past High School        2-6 years, license required

Job Outlook      Much faster than average

) [27] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Dietitician-Nutritionist [body] =>

Plan food and nutrition programs, supervise meal preparation, promote healthy eating habits and recommend diet changes. The manage food service systems for institutions such as hospitals, schools, or nursing homes. Dietitians can specialize to care for renal, diabetes, or critically ill patients.

Salary   $41,060 - $61,790

Education Past High School   4 years college + License in most states

Job Outlook   Average

) [28] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Emergency Medical Technician [body] =>

First responders who assess emergency conditions such as accidents, heart attacks, childbirth, or gunshot wounds. They provide emergency care and transportation to a medical facility and coordinate their care with physician medical direction.

Salary     $11.13 - $18.28/hr

Education Past High School        30-350 hrs + of EMT-Intermediate training + License

Job Outlook       Average

) [29] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Athletic trainer [body] =>

A healthcare professional who works in the field of sports medicine to assess risk management, injury prevention, acute care of sports-related injuries and illnesses. They perform  various types of therapies including rehab exercises.

Salary    $35,000-$45,000

Education Past High School        4 year Bachelor’s degree

Job Outlook      Expected to grow faster than average

) [30] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Kinesthesiologist [body] =>

Provides exercise principles to rehab physical therapy to enhance strength, endurance, and mobility of patients. Types of treatment include therapeutic exercise, geriatric rehab, water therapy, fitness and conditioning, and prosthetic rehabilitation.

Salary      Varies greatly with education, experience, and specialty; $29,560 - $58,454

Education Past High School   Options include 2 year associate programs or 4 year Bachelor degree programs, depending on the specialty

Job Outlook     Varies greatly with education, experience, and specialty, good for physical therapists, average for fitness trainers   

) [31] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Respiratory therapist [body] =>

Evaluate, treat, and manage patients of all ages having respiratory illnesses. They perform diagnostic studies, obtain blood samples for blood gas analysis, and administer lung function testing.

Salary    $44,490 - $61,720             

Education Past High School
2 year associate degree offered at colleges, vocational schools; a 4 year Bachelor’s degree is also available

Job Outlook    Very good 

) [32] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Recreational therapist [body] =>

Provides recreational activities to patients to improve physical, mental, or emotional  well-being and reduce depression, stress, or anxiety. Their activities also help to improve motor and social functions and reasoning abilities.

Salary   $29,660--$49,140

Education Past High School           4 years with certification available after internship

Job Outlook    Good

) [33] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Music therapist [body] =>

Uses music to help patients to improve mental functioning, motor skills, emotional development, and behavior and social skills.  Music therapy is used in hospitals, cancer centers, schools, alcohol and drug rehab programs, and psychiatric hospitals.

Salary     Average--$43,323  

Education Past High School        4 year Bachelor’s degree

Job Outlook      Good

) [34] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Medical coder [body] =>

Uses clinical statements from doctors to assign standard codes for case management, public health programming, medical billing, health insurance, and other record-keeping services. The field has varying competency levels with increasing training required as responsibilities increase.

Salary     $13.49 to $17.19/hour 

Education Past High School                1 year program at a vocational school; online courses are available

Job Outlook      Good

) [35] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Radiologic technologist [body] =>

Performs imaging of the human body to diagnose medical problems.  They  use a variety of technologies such as x-rays, ultrasound, CT scans, and MRIs to produce diagnostic pictures of illnesses and disease. They also administer radiation treatments to shrink or destroy cancerous growths.

Salary        $35,100--42,710  

Education Past High School        2 years but advanced degrees are available

Job Outlook   Good   (expected to increase by about 17 percent from 2008 to 2018)

) [36] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Surgical Technologist [body] =>

Surgical technologists or operating room technicians assist with surgical procedures under the supervision of a surgeon, registered nurse, or anesthesiologist. They prepare the operating room by setting up instruments, check equipment, and arrange sterile drapes and solutions. They also prepare patients for surgery, monitor vital signs, and transport patients to the operating room.

Salary     $32,490 and $46,910       

Education Past High School        9—24 months

Job Outlook     better than average 

) [37] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Clinical Trials Researcher [body] =>



Clinical trials researchers plan and conduct experiments in order to test the effectiveness of new medicines, therapies, treatments, or medical devices. They design the test according to scientific methodologies and implement the procedures through strict clinical trials protocol. They also analyze data and write reports.

Salary       Average of $72,590              

Education Past High School        6—8 years

Job Outlook        Good

) [38] => Array ( [title] => Clinical Trial Researcher [body] =>

Clinical trials researchers plan and conduct experiments in order to test the effectiveness of new medicines, therapies, treatments, or medical devices. They design the test according to scientific methodologies and implement the procedures through strict clinical trials protocol. They also analyze data and write reports.  

Salary                          Average of $72,590              

Education Past High School        6—8 years

Job Outlook                              Good

) [39] => Array ( [title] => Surgical Technologist [body] =>

Surgical technologists or operating room technicians assist with surgical procedures under the supervision of a surgeon, registered nurse, or anesthesiologist. They prepare the operating room by setting up instruments, check equipment, and arrange sterile drapes and solutions. They also prepare patients for surgery, monitor vital signs, and transport patients to the operating room.

Salary                   $32,490--$46,910       

Education Past High School        9—24 months

Job Outlook     better than average 

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[catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 0 [menuPosition] => 1 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [40] => Array ( [id] => 272 [title] => Nurse Midwife [url] => hcc_nurse_midwife [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 0 [menuPosition] => 1 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [41] => Array ( [id] => 273 [title] => Medical Coder [url] => hcc_medical_coder [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 0 [menuPosition] => 1 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [42] => Array ( [id] => 274 [title] => Surgical Technologist [url] => hcd_surgical_technologist [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 0 [menuPosition] => 1 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [43] => Array ( [id] => 275 [title] => Clinical Trial Researcher [url] => hcc_clin_trial_researcher [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 0 [menuPosition] => 1 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [44] => Array ( [id] => 276 [title] => Medical Records Specialist 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Array ( [id] => 281 [title] => Dialysis Technician [url] => hcc_dialysis_technician [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 0 [menuPosition] => 1 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [50] => Array ( [id] => 282 [title] => Medical Sonographer [url] => hcc_med_sonographer [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 0 [menuPosition] => 1 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) ) ) [string] => [file] => E:\websites\cybersurgeons\researchcenter/app/views/template.php [title] => Bridge Project [body] =>

Bridge Project

[fastfacts] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [title] => Chickenpox [body] =>

Chickenpox is highly contagious before any blisters appear. Therefore, the disease can be spread before any measures can be taken to limit exposure.  

) [1] => Array ( [title] => River Blindness [body] =>

River blindness is caused by a worm that travels through the skin to lodge in the eye. It was a leading cause of blindness in third world countries until the World Health Organization (WHO) distributed massive amounts of Ivermectin, a drug that reduces the numbers of immature worms in the skin.

) [2] => Array ( [title] => Herpes Infections [body] =>

Herpes infections can make people more susceptible to HIV infection, and it can make HIV-infected individuals more infectious. Image: HIV on a white blood cell.

) [3] => Array ( [title] => River Blindness [body] =>



River blindness is hard to control because the disease-causing worms can live in a human for 10-15 years and female worms can reproduce millions of worms in a lifetime. Adult female worms can be more than one-half meter in length.  Image: Adult black fly-insect that carries river blindness worms.

) [4] => Array ( [title] => Liver Fluke [body] =>

Liver fluke infestations occur repeatedly in some areas of the world because people eat traditional foods which can carry the parasites. Sometimes, people just take medicine to kill the fluke each year because they know they have it in their bodies.
Image: Fasciola hepatica, a liver fluke.

) [5] => Array ( [title] => Exotoxins [body] =>

Some diseases are caused indirectly by an exotoxin (a poison) released by a bacteria, fungi, algae, or protozoan. Exotoxins damage the host by destroying cells or interfering with cell metabolism. They can cause major damage to the host organism.
Image: The bacteria Clostridium botulinum produces the botulism toxin.

) [6] => Array ( [title] => Reye's Syndrome [body] =>

Reye's syndrome has been associated with the use of aspirin to treat chickenpox or the flu in children and has caused a general recommendation NOT to use aspirin for treating any condition in children. Image: Aspirin tablets.

) [7] => Array ( [title] => Yellow Fever [body] =>

Yellow fever is a viral disease mainly transmitted through the bite of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Image: Mosquito that carries yellow fever and dengue fever.

) [8] => Array ( [title] => MRSA [body] =>

Cases of community associated MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) have increased in recent years. Once usually seen only in hospital settings, the infections now occur in groups of people, such as athletes, who share personal items such as towels or razors. Image: Electron microscope view of S. aureus.

) [9] => Array ( [title] => Tongue Piercing Complications [body] =>

Bacteria from tongue piercing infections can easily travel to other parts of the body, especially the heart. Many patients with tongue infections develop endocarditis—an infection of the heart lining.

) [10] => Array ( [title] => Alcohol and the Human Heart [body] =>

Alcohol has a poisonous effect on heart muscle tissue. The heart cannot pump efficiently and the lack of blood flow results in damage throughout the body.

) [11] => Array ( [title] => MRSA [body] =>

Factors increasing the chances of acquiring a Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureusinfection include cuts or abrasions in the skin, contaminated items, crowded living conditions and poor hygiene. Image: Staphylococcus aureuson culture media plate.

) [12] => Array ( [title] => Chlamydia [body] =>

Most people who have chlamydia, the most commonly reported sexually transmitted disease in the U.S.,  don’t know it since the disease often has no symptoms. Image: Chlamydia sp.cells.

) [13] => Array ( [title] => STDs [body] =>

Sexually active females 25 years and younger should be tested for STDs every year since many have no symptoms and can yet impact a woman’s future ability to have children if left untreated.

) [14] => Array ( [title] => Asthma [body] =>

In an asthma attack, your airways in your lungs sell and shrink. Less air gets in and out of your lungs, and mucus that your body makes clogs up the airways such as the bronchii even more. You may have coughing, chest tightness, wheezing, and trouble breathing. Image: Structure of a bronchus.

) [15] => Array ( [title] => Corneal Ulcer [body] =>

Ulcers on the cornea (the clear window covering of the eye) can occur if contact lens are worn while sleeping, if they are not cleaned properly, or if you do not wash your hands well before touching your contacts. Corneal ulcers are usually caused by an infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or a parasite. Although you can recover completely from a corneal infection, it may also cause long-term damage to the cornea and loss of vision

) [16] => Array ( [title] => Asthma [body] =>

Asthma attacks can be triggered by irritants in your environment, such as tobacco smoke, dust mites, outdoor pollution, cockroaches and their droppings, pets, mold, respiratory infections, food additives, and strenuous exercise. If you have asthma, finding your “trigger” can help you avoid attacks.

) [17] => Array ( [title] => Human Papilloma Virus [body] =>

Warts are growths on your skin cause by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Types of warts are common warts (on your fingers), plantar warts (on the soles of your feet), genital warts (a sexually transmitted disease), and flat warts (in places where you shave frequently). 
Image: Warts.

) [18] => Array ( [title] => Diabetes [body] =>

According to the CDC, 25.8 million people in the U.S. have diabetes. Image: Blood test device

) [19] => Array ( [title] => Diabetes [body] =>



Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, non-traumatic lower limb amputations, and new cases of blindness among adults in the United States.

Image: Senor woman's diabetic foot

) [20] => Array ( [title] => Blood Pressure [body] =>

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Your (systolic) pressure is higher when your heart pumps blood through an artery; when your heart rests, the (diastolic) pressure is lower.

) [21] => Array ( [title] => Asthma [body] =>

Asthma is one of the most common lung diseases of children, but adults have asthma, too. Asthma causes repeated episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and nighttime or early morning coughing.

) [22] => Array ( [title] => Diabetes [body] =>



Diabetes is a major cause of heart disease and stroke and the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.

) [23] => Array ( [title] => Fetal Alcohol Syndrome [body] =>

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders are 100% preventable if a woman does not drink alcohol during pregnancy. There is no known safe amount of alcohol to drink while pregnant. There is also no safe time during pregnancy to drink and no safe kind of alcohol.

) [24] => Array ( [title] => Tattoo Health Risks [body] =>

The health risks of tattoos include allergic reactions, keloid scar tissue, and infections such as hepatitis. If you are going to get a tattoo, be aware of the risks, make sure you go to a clean, reputable facility and check for proper sterilization techniques.

) [25] => Array ( [title] => Fetal Alcohol Syndrome [body] =>

When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, so does her baby. Alcohol passes through the placenta to the baby through the umbilical cord. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the child.

) [26] => Array ( [title] => Herpes [body] =>



Genital herpes
is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). Most infected people have no or only minimal symptoms. You can catch genital herpes from a partner who has no symptoms at all. image: Herpes Simplex Virus

) [27] => Array ( [title] => MRSA [body] =>

Never attempt to treat a MRSA  skin infection or an infection that you think may be MRSA by yourself. You may worsen the infection or spread it to others. Image: Rupured MRSA abscess.

) [28] => Array ( [title] => Fetal Alcohol Syndrome [body] =>

A person with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder may have abnormal facial features, small head size, poor coordination, learning disabilities, low IQ, vision problems, and problems with the heart, kidneys, and bones.

) [29] => Array ( [title] => Herpes [body] =>



You can get genital herpes even if your partner shows no signs of the infection.
There is no cure for herpes, but treatment is available to reduce symptoms and decrease the risk of transmission to a partner. Image: Herpes Simplex Pap Test

) [30] => Array ( [title] => Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease [body] =>



Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common childhood disease caused by an enterovirus. Usually a very mild infection, a strain of the virus, Enterovirus 71, infected more than 23,000 and killed 70. The more serious strain can lead to paralysis, brain swelling, and death.

) [31] => Array ( [title] => Chronic Bronchitis [body] =>

Chronic bronchitis is another form of COPD—Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. COPD can develop from smoking. At the end stages of COPD, breathing is very difficult. Breathing tubes and mechanical ventilation may be needed.

) [32] => Array ( [title] => Herpes [body] =>

Most people infected with Herpes simplex virus type 2 are not aware of their infection. Most either never have sores, or the sores are so mild they don’t even notice them, or they mistake them for insect bites. They can, however, pass the virus to other people.

) [33] => Array ( [title] => Rabies [body] =>



If an animal bite is a puncture wound, it has a better chance of being infected. Rabies is a potentially fatal disease spread through the saliva of an infected animal. There is no cure for rabies once symptoms develop, but there is an effective vaccine if you get treatment before symptoms appear.

) [34] => Array ( [title] => MRSA risk [body] =>

The biggest risk factor for Methicillin Resistant Staph aureus infection is open or broken skin, but MRSA infections can occur even on areas of the skin where there is no obvious wound.  If you think you might have a MRSA infection, cover the infected skin, wash your hands, and see your doctor for testing or treatment. Image: An open wound susceptible to MRSA infection.

) [35] => Array ( [title] => Heart Disease [body] =>

Heart disease is the #1 killer in the U.S. The most common type of heart disease is the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, blood vessels that supply blood to the heart. This coronary artery disease is the main cause of heart attacks.
Image: Ruptured aorta damaged from heart disease.

) [36] => Array ( [title] => Blood Pressure [body] =>

Normal blood pressure readings are 120/80 or lower; a BP reading of 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure, or hypertension; between 120 and 139 for the top number or between 80 and 89 for the bottom number is prehypertension. Image:  Blood pressure cuff and stethoscope.

) [37] => Array ( [title] => Cholesterol [body] =>



Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance produced for you by your liver and important in many metabolic reactions. You need some cholesterol to work properly, but if you have too much in the blood, it can stick to the walls of your arteries and cause coronary artery disease (narrowing or blockage of the arteries)

) [38] => Array ( [title] => Smoking and COPD [body] =>



Cigarette smoking is the #1 cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Breathing in tobacco irritants causes your airways and air sacs to lose their shape and become floppy, like stretched-out balloons, making breathing difficult.

) [39] => Array ( [title] => Type 1 Diabetes [body] =>

If you have diabetes, your blood glucose or sugar levels are too high. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas which lowers blood glucose by helping the glucose get into your cells for energy. With Type 1 diabetes, your body does not make enough insulin and therefore too much glucose stays in the blood. Image: Insulin vials.

) [40] => Array ( [title] => Acne [body] =>

Acne is a common skin condition that causes pimples. Pimples form when hair follicles under your skin clog up. Most pimples form on the face, neck, back, chest and shoulders. Anyone can get acne, but it is common in teenagers and young adults.
Image: Illustration of Acne Pimple

) [41] => Array ( [title] => Skin [body] =>



Your skin is the largest organ of your body. It weighs between 6 and 9 pounds and is about 2 square yards in volume. 

) [42] => Array ( [title] => Tonsils and Adenoids [body] =>

 Have you had to get your tonsils or adenoids removed? Both are part of your lymphatic system and help protect you from infection by trapping microbes entering your body through your mouth or nose. 

) [43] => Array ( [title] => Gas [body] =>

Most people produce about 1 to 4 pints of gas a day and pass gas about 14 times a day. Passing gas through the mouth is called belching or burping. Passing gas through the rectum is called flatulence. 

) [44] => Array ( [title] => Gas in Your Digestive Tract [body] =>



The gas in your digestive tract comes from the air. Some foods you eat cause more gas than others. Drinking lots of water and non-fizzy drinks and chewing food more to lessen the amount of air you swallow when you eat can help reduce gas. If you are lactose intolerance, milk products will make you more gassy.

) [45] => Array ( [title] => Conjunctivitis [body] =>



Conjunctivitis is an eye infection also known as pinkeye. It is very contagious and if you have to treat one eye with antibiotic drops, the doctor will usually tell you to treat the other eye also as the infection will no doubt travel to the other eye quickly. Image: An eye with acute conjunctivitis.

) [46] => Array ( [title] => Flatuence [body] =>



Flatuence (gas passed through the rectum) has an odor because bacteria in the large intestine also release small amounts of gases that contain sulfur. 

) [47] => Array ( [title] => High Blood Pressure [body] =>



High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, but it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, heart attack and kidney failure. 

) [48] => Array ( [title] => Stye [body] =>



A stye is a bump on the eyelid that occurs when bacteria from your skin get into the hair follicle of an eyelash.

) [49] => Array ( [title] => Injuries [body] =>



Injuries are the leading cause of death and disability for people aged 1 to 44 years in the United States.  Approximately 72% of all deaths among adolescents aged 10-24 years are attributed to injuries from only four causes: motor vehicle crashes (30%), all other unintentional injuries (15%), homicide (15%), and suicide (12%).(CDC) 

) [50] => Array ( [title] => Lead Poisoning [body] =>



Young children tend to chew on just about anything in their environment. When these items contain lead, they can permanent suffer the effects of lead poisoning.  Lead poisoning can cause permanent reduced IQ, slowed body growth, hearing problems, attention problems, failure at school and kidney damage. Make sure a child’s environment is free of all sources of lead to prevent lead poisoning. Image: Atypical cells of patient with lead poisoning. 

) [51] => Array ( [title] => Smoking and Cataracts [body] =>



Smoking increases the risk of developing cataracts. Cataracts are the clouding of the lens in your eye.  Blurry vision, colors that seem to fade, not being about to see well at night, and double vision can result. 

) [52] => Array ( [title] => Eye Protection from UV Rays [body] =>



If you are going to be out in the sun for long periods of time, you should wear protective sunglasses to reduce the amount of UV rays emitted into the eye. Long-term exposure to ultraviolet rays increases the risk of cataract formation.

) [53] => Array ( [title] => Diabetes and Insulin [body] =>



Diabetes is a condition of having high levels of sugar in the blood caused when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin.  Insulin is a hormone that lowers the amount of sugar in the blood by allowing the body's cells to uptake the glucose supplied to them.

) [54] => Array ( [title] => Kidney Stones [body] =>



Kidney stones are solid masses made up of minerals that form in the kidney and interfere with kidney function. They can be painful and are either passed naturally through urinary release, broken up with lasers, and then passed, or removed surgically.

) [55] => Array ( [title] => Kidney Stone Composition [body] =>



Depending on the type of mineral that forms a kidney stone in a particular patient, dietary changes can lessen the probability of subsequent episodes. Consuming an increased amount of water and juices keeps urine dilute and will help prevent a concentration of minerals which may lead to kidney stone formation.

) [56] => Array ( [title] => Cystitis [body] =>



Cystitis is a bacterial infection of the bladder or lower urinary tract. It should be treated promptly with antibiotics so the infection does not “climb” up the urinary system to the kidneys. Image: Increased white cells in the urine of a patient with cystitis.

) [57] => Array ( [title] => Tetanus [body] =>



Clostridium tetani, the bacteria that causes tetanus, lives in the soil. In spore form, it can remain infectious for more than 40 years. Infection occurs when the spores in the soil enter a wound site. The spores release bacteria that produce a toxin which blocks nerve signals from the spinal cord to the muscles. Severe muscle spasms result. The spasms can be so intense that muscles tear and vertebrae fracture.

) [58] => Array ( [title] => Taking Antibiotics [body] =>



You should always finish all antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor (even if you are feeling better) to make sure all the bacteria causing the infection are killed and to prevent the development of bacterial resistance.

) [59] => Array ( [title] => Tetanus and Puncture Wounds [body] =>



Many people believe tetanus is a disease caused by injury from a rusty nail. It is not the rust on the nail that causes an infection. Injuries with nails are usually puncture-type wounds. This makes infection more likely because even if the wound is cleaned, bacteria can be too deep in the tissues to be removed. Image: Puncture wound from a dart.

) [60] => Array ( [title] => Toxic Shock Syndrome [body] =>



Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by certain types of Staphylococcus bacteria. It can be deadly in up to 50% of cases and can be fatal within hours. Those who do survive may have lasting effects from the disease or organ failure and are also more likely to get the disease again in the future. 

) [61] => Array ( [title] => Sunburns and Skin Cancer [body] =>



A history of one or more sunburns (an indicator of intense UV exposure) in childhood or adolescence has been found to increase the risk of developing basal cell carcinoma and melanoma as an adult.

) [62] => Array ( [title] => Cases of toxic shock syndrome [body] =>

Toxic shock syndrome has been linked to tampon use. The numbers of infection have decreased in recent years after sharp increases apparently due to the development of extra-absorbency materials in tampons. Extra-absorbency material use in tampons has been discontinued.   

) [63] => Array ( [title] => Leading Preventable Cause of Death [body] =>



Tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, cigar smoking, and smokeless tobacco use, remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. (CDC)

) [64] => Array ( [title] => Childhood UV Exposure [body] =>



More than half of a person's lifetime UV exposure typically occurs during childhood and adolescence. Childhood is the most important time for developing moles, an important risk factor for skin cancer. 

) [65] => Array ( [title] => Serious Health Problems from Smoking [body] =>



Cigarette smoking by young people leads to immediate and serious health problems including respiratory and non-respiratory effects, addiction to nicotine, and the associated risk of other drug use.

) [66] => Array ( [title] => Smokeless Tobacco and Cancers [body] =>



Use of smokeless tobacco causes cancers of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus, gum recession, and an increased risk for heart disease and stroke.

) [67] => Array ( [title] => Sun Exposure in Childhood [body] =>



Too much sun exposure in childhood increases the risk of melanoma.  

) [68] => Array ( [title] => Types of Diabetes [body] =>



There are three types of diabetes: 1) Type 1 diabetes occurs mostly in children when the body produces little or no insulin. The condition is treated with daily injections of insulin. 2) Type 2 diabetes is more common than Type 1 and usually occurs in adults. It often occurs with a lack of exercise and increasing obesity and can be treated with oral medication. 3) Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy.  

) [69] => Array ( [title] => The Most Common Type of Cancer [body] =>



Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer, and new cases and deaths from melanoma, the deadliest form, have been increasing dramatically. Effective sun protection is practiced by less than one-third of U.S. youth. Image:  A malignant melanoma. 

) [70] => Array ( [title] => Deaths From Smoking [body] =>



Each year cigarette smoking accounts for approximately 1 of every 5 deaths, or about 443,000 people. Cigarette smoking results in 5.1 million years of potential life lost in the United States annually. (CDC)

) [71] => Array ( [title] => Scoliosis [body] =>



Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine and usually develops during childhood, if it develops at all. The warning signs of scoliosis in children include shoulders and waist that appear uneven, very prominent shoulder blades, hips that appear elevated, and a posture that leans to one side. Image: Measurement of curvature of the spine. 

) [72] => Array ( [title] => Addictive Nicotine [body] =>



Studies have found nicotine to be addictive in ways similar to heroin, cocaine, and alcohol. Of all addictive behaviors, cigarette smoking is the one most likely to become established during adolescence.

) [73] => Array ( [title] => Daily New Smokers [body] =>

 Each day in the United States, approximately 3,600 young people between the ages of 12 and 17 years begin cigarette smoking, and an estimated 1,100 young people become daily cigarette smokers. (CDC)

) [74] => Array ( [title] => Farsightedness vs Nearsightedness [body] =>

Farsightedness is greater difficulty seeing near objects than seeing distant objects. Nearsightedness is greater difficulty seeing distant object than seeing near objects.  Both are caused when light entering the pupil does not focus correctly on the retina. Corrective lens (glasses or contact lens) can improve vision for someone with either condition.

) [75] => Array ( [title] => Secondhand Smoke [body] =>



There is no risk-free level of secondhand smoke exposure. Even brief exposure can be dangerous. Don’t let someone tell you that smoking around you won’t hurt you.

) [76] => Array ( [title] => Sports Injuries [body] =>

Over half of all sports injuries are knee injuries. Torn ligaments and cartilage occur most often. Aches and pains of the kneecap are grouped into a category of “runner’s knee” although these injuries are also seen in cyclists, swimmers, and football, basketball, and volleyball players. Image: Right knee joint from the front.

) [77] => Array ( [title] => Tattoo Infections [body] =>

If you are thinking of getting a tattoo, remember that bacteria can be passed from the tattoo artist to the customer, from the tool to the customer, or from the customer to themselves when the skin is broken for the tattoo. Serious infections can result.

) [78] => Array ( [title] => Secondhand Smoke and Children [body] =>

Children are most affected by secondhand smoke. Their bodies are still developing and exposure to the toxins in secondhand smoke puts them at risk for severe respiratory diseases and may hinder the growth of their lungs.

) [79] => Array ( [title] => Tennis Elbow [body] =>

Tennis elbow is the degeneration of the tendon in the elbow due to repeated backhand strokes in tennis. If you play tennis or other sports that apply stress to ligaments and tendons, perform tendon-strengthening exercises, wear a brace on your elbow or affected body part, and apply ice packs and take oral pain relievers if pain persists. If these treatments do not help, you may have to take a break from the sport until the tendon heals. 

) [80] => Array ( [title] => Tattoos and HIV [body] =>

There is a risk of HIV transmission while getting a tattoo if tattoo personnel do not use safe tattoo practices, such as sterilizing or disinfecting all instruments between customers. For that reason, the CDC (Center for Disease Control) recommends single-use instruments.

) [81] => Array ( [title] => Emphysema [body] =>

Emphysema is a debilitating lung disease primarily caused by smoking. Chemicals in the tobacco form a crust over air sacs in the lungs over time and the victim cannot completely inhale or exhale. They cannot get enough oxygen and therefore, struggle for breath even when they are not active.

) [82] => Array ( [title] => Tattoo Makeup [body] =>

Tattoo inks are regarded as cosmetics. They are not regulated or approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Also, the dyes used in tattoo inks aren’t approved for injection. Long-term effects of these dyes and inks are not known.

) [83] => Array ( [title] => HIV-AIDS [body] =>

There is no cure for HIV/AIDS. Although a variety and combination of anti-viral drugs may control the growth of the virus, success is different for each patient. Medicines have to be strictly taken as prescribed viral loads and blood cell counts have to be monitored regularly. 

) [84] => Array ( [title] => ABCDs of Skin Cancer [body] =>

Remember the ABCD’s of skin cancer:  A–asymmetrical, B–irregular border; C–color varies throughout, D–diameter is larger than 6 millimeters. See a doctor about any skin growth that falls within any of the ABCDs of skin cancer.

) [85] => Array ( [title] => Concussion [body] =>

A concussion is a brain injury usually caused by a blow to the head. Symptoms include headache, dizziness, amnesia, loss of balance, blurry vision, nausea, and vomiting. It does not necessarily mean a loss of consciousness. Repeated concussions (as in sports injuries) can cause permanent brain damage.

) [86] => Array ( [title] => Whooping cough [body] =>

Whopping cough (pertussis) is caused by the Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis bacteria.  It is very contagious and can cause permanent disabilities or even death in infants. The DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis) vaccine shots begin in infancy. People of every age can get whooping cough. Some medical organizations recommend that adults can receive the vaccination up to age 65.

) [87] => Array ( [title] => Ringworm [body] =>

Ringworm is a skin infection caused by a fungus, not a worm. Ringworm can occur anywhere on the body; the ringworm of the groin area (tinea cruris) is jock itch while ringworm on the feet (tinea pedis) is athlete’s foot. It is very contagious and can be passed to another person through contact with infected clothing, combs, and surfaces in pools, showers, or bath floors. 

) [88] => Array ( [title] => Shin Splints [body] =>

 

Shin splints are caused by the inflammation of the muscles that surround the skin. They are painful and result when people increase their workouts too fast, wear worn-out shoes, or jump or run on hard surfaces without proper shoe support. Cross-training, stretching, and wear good support shoes can help prevent shin splints.

) [89] => Array ( [title] => Measles [body] =>

Measles is highly contagious (easily spreads). The viral infection is spread by contact with droplets from the nose, mouth, or throat of an infected person. Symptoms occur from 8—12 days after exposure (the incubation period). A vaccination against measles is available. 

) [90] => Array ( [title] => The Small Intestine [body] =>

The human small intestine begins at the pyloric valve near the stomach and ends at the colic valve of the large intestine. It is about 7 meters long and is a convoluted tube in the lower abdomen. 

) [91] => Array ( [title] => The Pituitary Gland [body] =>

The human pituitary gland is about the size of a pea, weighs about 0.5g and is located at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. Despite its small size it has two lobes the anterior and the posterior) which each secrete important metabolic hormones.

) [92] => Array ( [title] => Alcohol Impairment [body] =>

A person who drinks heavily over a long period of time may have brain damage that persists well after he or she no longer drinks. Alcohol can produce impairments in memory after only a few drinks and, as the amount of alcohol increases, so does the degree of impairment. 

) [93] => Array ( [title] => Alcohol Use and Brain Shrinkage [body] =>

 Using imaging with computerized tomography, studies compared brain shrinkage, a common indicator of brain damage, in alcoholic men and women and reported that male and female alcoholics both showed significantly greater brain shrinkage than non-alcoholics.  Studies also showed that both men and women have similar learning and memory problems as a result of heavy drinking.

) [94] => Array ( [title] => Alcoholism and WKS Disease [body] =>

Up to 80 percent of alcoholics have a deficiency in thiamine and some of these people will go on to develop serious brain disorders such as Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). WKS is a disease that consists of two separate syndromes, a short–lived and severe condition called Wernicke’s encephalopathy and a long–lasting and debilitating condition known as Korsakoff’s psychosis.

) [95] => Array ( [title] => Avoid Ringworm [body] =>

If you want to avoid ringworm infections, keep your skin clean and dry. Bathe regularly after sports activities, launder your clothes after each use, and launder clothes of an infected family member separately to avoid the dirt and sweat that may contain the fungus. 

) ) [careers] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [title] => Allergist and Immunologist [body] =>

Physicians who help prevent and treat diseases affecting the immune system. They perform allergen tests such as skin pricks and patch tests to identify allergic and immune response disorders.

Average Salary     $166,400

Education-Years After High School   8+ (doctoral or other post-graduate degree)

Job Outlook         Excellent 

) [1] => Array ( [title] => Anesthesiologist [body] =>

Anesthesiologists are doctors who administer anesthetics prior to, during, or after surgery or other medical procedures. They may use local, intravenous, spinal or caudal methods. They must monitor patients before, during, and after anesthesia and counteract complications.

Average Salary    $166,400

Education-Years After High School    8+ (doctoral or other post-graduate degree)

Job Outlook      Excellent

) [2] => Array ( [title] => Medical Transcriptionist [body] =>

Type medical reports that have been audio-recorded by physicians and other healthcare practitioners using various electronic devices. Transcriptionists convert dictated reports with jargon and abbreviations into fully understandable forms. They edit as necessary and return reports in either printed or electronic form for review and signature. 

Average Salary     $32,900

Education-Years After High School  2-year associate’s degree or 1-year certificate program

Job Outlook      Average 

) [3] => Array ( [title] => Laboratory Technician [body] =>

Perform medical lab tests for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Tests include chemical analyses of body fluids (blood, urine) using microscope or automatic analyzers and blood tests for transfusion and determing blood cell counts. Lab technicians also prepare and examine stained cells for abnormalities.

Average Salary     $36,280

Education-Years After High School  2 year associate degree

Job Outlook     Good 

) [4] => Array ( [title] => Laboratory Technologist [body] =>

Perform complex medical lab tests for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease. Operate, calibrate and maintain equipment such as spectrophotometers, calorimeters, flame photometers, or computer-controlled analyzers. Lab technologists conduct chemical analysis of body fluids such as blood, urine, or spinal fluid, to determine presence of normal or abnormal components and to determine the number of cells.

Average Salary     $56,130

Education-Years After High School   4 years Bachelors of Science degree

Job Outlook      Average 

) [5] => Array ( [title] => Pediatrician [body] =>

Prescribe and administer treatments, medications, vaccinations, and specialized medical care to prevent or treat illness, disease and injury in infants and children. 

Average Salary    $155,370

Education-Years After High School    8+ (completing medical school and internship)

Job Outlook     Excellent 

) [6] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Surgeon [body] =>

Physicians who treat diseases, injuries, and deformities by surgical methods. Surgeons analyze patients’ medical history, medication allergies, physical condition and lab results to determine the best surgical procedure and post-op care.  

Average Salary    $166,400

Education-Years After High School    8+ (completing medical school and internship)

Job Outlook     Excellent

) [7] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Internist [body] =>

A physician who collects, records, and maintains medical histories and exams and analyses them as needed to prevent, diagnose and treat illnesses and internal disorders, such as hypertension, heart disease, or diabetes. They provide long-term comprehensive medical care. 

Average Salary    $166,400

Education-Years After High School    8+ (completing medical school and internship)

Job Outlook    Excellent 

) [8] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Licensed Practical Nurse [body] =>

LPN’s care for ill, injured, or convalescing patients in hospitals, nursing homes, or clinics. They may work under the supervision of a registered nurse to provide basic patient care or treatments, such as dressing wounds, dispensing medications and recording vital signs. 

Average Salary     $40,380

Education-Years After High School   1-2 year associate programs

Job Outlook       Excellent 

) [9] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Registered Nurse [body] =>

Assess patient health problems, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records. They consult and coordinate with healthcare team members to evaluate patient conditions and may supervise a medical unit within a hospital. 

Average Salary    $64,690

Education-Years After High School    2-4 years

Job Outlook     Excellent 

) [10] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Obstetrician [body] =>

Physicians who care for women before, during, and after pregnancy and childbirth. They provide education and advice to maintain a healthy pregnancy, treat problem-pregnancy conditions, and deliver babies by surgical and non-surgical methods.  

Average Salary    $166,400 Median

Education-Years in School   8-10 (college degree+medical school+experience in obstetrics)

Job Outlook     Excellent

) [11] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Gynecologist [body] =>

Physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases unique to women. They examine test results, prescribe therapy and medication, and perform surgeries. 

Average Salary     $166,400 Median

Education-Years After High School   8-10 (college degree+medical school+experience in surgery)

Job Outlook     Excellent 

) [12] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Nurse Midwife [body] =>

A healthcare professional who supervises all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth. They perform physical exams, document the pregnancy, monitor fetal heartbeats, take uterine measurements, identify fetal positions, and record fetal size and weight. 

Average Salary    $64,690

Education-Years After High School   4-8+ years (most require graduate school training and experience)

Job Outlook     Good 

) [13] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Preventative Medicine Physicians [body] =>

Physicians who promote healthcare to groups or individuals and aid in the prevention or reduction or risk of disease, injury, disability or death. They practice population-based medicine and treat patients in the clinical health setting and coordinate resources of social service agencies and other organizations.  

Average Salary    $166,400

Education-Years After High School   6-12+ (college degree+medical degree+work experience in field)

Job Outlook       Excellent 

) [14] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Medical Scientist [body] =>

Conduct research to understand human diseases and improve human health. They perform clinical investigations and research to develop instrumentation, procedures, and treatments for disease. 

Average Salary    $76,700

Education-Years After High School  8+ (college degree+medical or doctoral degree+work experience in field)

Job Outlook      Excellent

) [15] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Epidemiologist [body] =>

Investigate and describe the causes and distribution of diseases, disabilities, or health conditions and study ways for prevention and control. They monitor and report incidents of infectious diseases to local and state health departments and educate workers, patients and the general public about communicable diseases. 

Average Salary    $63,010

Education-Years After High School    4-8 (college-doctoral degree)

Job Outlook     Good

) [16] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Physician Assistant [body] =>

Perform healthcare duties of a physician, under the supervision of a physician. They conduct patient exams, make diagnoses, provide treatment, and prescribe medication. They provide basic healthcare services, give injections, suture wounds, order tests, and report back to the supervising physician. 

Average Salary    $86,410

Education-Years After High School    4-8 (college degree-doctoral degree)

Job Outlook     Excellent

) [17] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Physical Therapist [body] =>

Plan and administer rehab programs to improve patient movements, relieve pain, increase strength, and correct disabilities from disease or injury. PTs perform physical tests, measure motor functions and recommend physical therapies such as exercises or traction. 

Average Salary    $76,310

Education-Years After High School   4-8 (college degree-doctoral degree)

Job Outlook     Excellent

) [18] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Occupational Therapist [body] =>

Plan and administer rehab programs to build or restore vocational, homemaking, or daily living skills for patients with disabilities. OTs evaluate patients physical and mental abilities to determine rehab goals and help patients learn work and life skills within their limits. 

Average Salary     $76,320

Education-Years After High School    4-8 (college degree-doctoral degree)

Job Outlook     Excellent 

) [19] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Speech Language Pathologists [body] =>

Assist in the treatment of speech, language, and voice disorders. They work under the supervision of a speech pathologist to perform tests, implement therapies, and maintain patient records.  They also conduct in-service training sessions or family and community education programs.

Average Salary    $62,930

Education-Years After High School   1-6 (some college-masters degree)

Job Outlook     Good

) [20] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Speech Pathologist Assistant [body] =>

Assist in the treatment of speech, language, and voice disorders. They work under the supervision of a speech pathologist to perform tests, implement therapies, and maintain patient records. They also conduct in-service training sessions or family and community education programs.

Average Salary    $48,230

Education-Years After High School    1-6 (some college-masters degree)

Job Outlook    Good

) [21] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Audiologist [body] =>

Work with people who have hearing, balance, and related ear problems. They identify symptoms of hearing loss and use audiometers, computers, and testing devices to evaluate patient conditions and recommend a course of treatment. 

Salary      $50,470 - $78,380

Education Past High School        4 years college + 4 years or more for doctorate

Job Outlook    Much faster than average 

) [22] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Cardiovascular technician [body] =>

Assist physicians in diagnosing and treating cardiac (heart) and blood vessel problems. The review patient files, monitor heart rates, operate and care for testing equipment, explain test procedures, and specialize in electrocardiograms and stress testing. 

Salary    $32,800 - $61,580

Education Past High School             2-4 years

Job Outlook     Much faster than average

) [23] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Chiropractor [body] =>

Diagnose and treat patients with health problems of the musculoskeletal system and recommend  treatments. They record patient histories and conduct physical exams.  Treatments include adjustments to the spinal column and heat, water, and massage therapies, and acupuncture therapy. They do not prescribe drugs or perform surgery.

Salary     $45,540 - $96,700

Education Past High School           2-4 years college + 4 years-Doctor of Chiropractic

Job Outlook       Faster than the average occupation

) [24] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Dental Assistant [body] =>

Work under the supervision of a dentist to sterilize and disinfect dental instruments and equipment, obtain and update patient records, prepare patients for treatment, and instruct patients on oral health care. They may also prepare materials for impressions, process dental x-rays, and perform a variety of office duties.

Salary    $26,980 - $38,960

Education Past High School        0-2 years, some states require licensure

Job Outlook      Much faster than average  

) [25] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Dentist [body] =>

Diagnose and treat problems with teeth, remove tooth decay, fill cavities, examine x-rays, apply sealants, extract teeth, and repair fractured teeth.  They use x-ray machines, drills mirrors, probes, forceps and computer technologies  to correct dental problems.

Salary    $142,870

Education Past High School            2-4 years college + 4 years dental school + License

Job Outlook     Faster than average

) [26] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Dental Hygienist [body] =>

Remove soft and hard deposits from teeth, instruct patients on good oral hygiene, examine teeth and gums, and use hand and rotary instruments to clean and polish teeth. They also take x-rays, develop x-ray films, and apply fluoride treatments and sealants.

Salary   $55,220 - $78,990

Education Past High School        2-6 years, license required

Job Outlook      Much faster than average

) [27] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Dietitician-Nutritionist [body] =>

Plan food and nutrition programs, supervise meal preparation, promote healthy eating habits and recommend diet changes. The manage food service systems for institutions such as hospitals, schools, or nursing homes. Dietitians can specialize to care for renal, diabetes, or critically ill patients.

Salary   $41,060 - $61,790

Education Past High School   4 years college + License in most states

Job Outlook   Average

) [28] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Emergency Medical Technician [body] =>

First responders who assess emergency conditions such as accidents, heart attacks, childbirth, or gunshot wounds. They provide emergency care and transportation to a medical facility and coordinate their care with physician medical direction.

Salary     $11.13 - $18.28/hr

Education Past High School        30-350 hrs + of EMT-Intermediate training + License

Job Outlook       Average

) [29] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Athletic trainer [body] =>

A healthcare professional who works in the field of sports medicine to assess risk management, injury prevention, acute care of sports-related injuries and illnesses. They perform  various types of therapies including rehab exercises.

Salary    $35,000-$45,000

Education Past High School        4 year Bachelor’s degree

Job Outlook      Expected to grow faster than average

) [30] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Kinesthesiologist [body] =>

Provides exercise principles to rehab physical therapy to enhance strength, endurance, and mobility of patients. Types of treatment include therapeutic exercise, geriatric rehab, water therapy, fitness and conditioning, and prosthetic rehabilitation.

Salary      Varies greatly with education, experience, and specialty; $29,560 - $58,454

Education Past High School   Options include 2 year associate programs or 4 year Bachelor degree programs, depending on the specialty

Job Outlook     Varies greatly with education, experience, and specialty, good for physical therapists, average for fitness trainers   

) [31] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Respiratory therapist [body] =>

Evaluate, treat, and manage patients of all ages having respiratory illnesses. They perform diagnostic studies, obtain blood samples for blood gas analysis, and administer lung function testing.

Salary    $44,490 - $61,720             

Education Past High School
2 year associate degree offered at colleges, vocational schools; a 4 year Bachelor’s degree is also available

Job Outlook    Very good 

) [32] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Recreational therapist [body] =>

Provides recreational activities to patients to improve physical, mental, or emotional  well-being and reduce depression, stress, or anxiety. Their activities also help to improve motor and social functions and reasoning abilities.

Salary   $29,660--$49,140

Education Past High School           4 years with certification available after internship

Job Outlook    Good

) [33] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Music therapist [body] =>

Uses music to help patients to improve mental functioning, motor skills, emotional development, and behavior and social skills.  Music therapy is used in hospitals, cancer centers, schools, alcohol and drug rehab programs, and psychiatric hospitals.

Salary     Average--$43,323  

Education Past High School        4 year Bachelor’s degree

Job Outlook      Good

) [34] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Medical coder [body] =>

Uses clinical statements from doctors to assign standard codes for case management, public health programming, medical billing, health insurance, and other record-keeping services. The field has varying competency levels with increasing training required as responsibilities increase.

Salary     $13.49 to $17.19/hour 

Education Past High School                1 year program at a vocational school; online courses are available

Job Outlook      Good

) [35] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Radiologic technologist [body] =>

Performs imaging of the human body to diagnose medical problems.  They  use a variety of technologies such as x-rays, ultrasound, CT scans, and MRIs to produce diagnostic pictures of illnesses and disease. They also administer radiation treatments to shrink or destroy cancerous growths.

Salary        $35,100--42,710  

Education Past High School        2 years but advanced degrees are available

Job Outlook   Good   (expected to increase by about 17 percent from 2008 to 2018)

) [36] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Surgical Technologist [body] =>

Surgical technologists or operating room technicians assist with surgical procedures under the supervision of a surgeon, registered nurse, or anesthesiologist. They prepare the operating room by setting up instruments, check equipment, and arrange sterile drapes and solutions. They also prepare patients for surgery, monitor vital signs, and transport patients to the operating room.

Salary     $32,490 and $46,910       

Education Past High School        9—24 months

Job Outlook     better than average 

) [37] => Array ( [title] => SOC-Clinical Trials Researcher [body] =>



Clinical trials researchers plan and conduct experiments in order to test the effectiveness of new medicines, therapies, treatments, or medical devices. They design the test according to scientific methodologies and implement the procedures through strict clinical trials protocol. They also analyze data and write reports.

Salary       Average of $72,590              

Education Past High School        6—8 years

Job Outlook        Good

) [38] => Array ( [title] => Clinical Trial Researcher [body] =>

Clinical trials researchers plan and conduct experiments in order to test the effectiveness of new medicines, therapies, treatments, or medical devices. They design the test according to scientific methodologies and implement the procedures through strict clinical trials protocol. They also analyze data and write reports.  

Salary                          Average of $72,590              

Education Past High School        6—8 years

Job Outlook                              Good

) [39] => Array ( [title] => Surgical Technologist [body] =>

Surgical technologists or operating room technicians assist with surgical procedures under the supervision of a surgeon, registered nurse, or anesthesiologist. They prepare the operating room by setting up instruments, check equipment, and arrange sterile drapes and solutions. They also prepare patients for surgery, monitor vital signs, and transport patients to the operating room.

Salary                   $32,490--$46,910       

Education Past High School        9—24 months

Job Outlook     better than average 

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[title] => Pharmacist [url] => hccd_pharmacist [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 237 [menuPosition] => 3 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [22] => Array ( [id] => 252 [title] => Physical Therapist [url] => hccd_physical_therapist [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 237 [menuPosition] => 3 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [23] => Array ( [id] => 253 [title] => Allergist [url] => hccd_allergist [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 237 [menuPosition] => 3 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [24] => Array ( [id] => 254 [title] => Athletic Trainer [url] => hccd_athletic_trainer [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 237 [menuPosition] => 3 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [25] => Array ( [id] => 255 [title] => Occupational Therapist [url] => hccd_occ_therapist [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 237 [menuPosition] => 3 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [26] => Array ( [id] => 256 [title] => Physician Assistant [url] => hccd_physician_assistant [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 237 [menuPosition] => 3 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [27] => Array ( [id] => 257 [title] => Registered Nurse [url] => hccd_registered_nurse [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 237 [menuPosition] => 3 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [28] => Array ( [id] => 258 [title] => Recreational Therapist [url] => hccd_recreational_therapist [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 237 [menuPosition] => 3 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [29] => Array ( [id] => 259 [title] => Anaesthesiologist [url] => hccd_anaesthesiologist [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 237 [menuPosition] => 3 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [30] => Array ( [id] => 260 [title] => Speech-Language Pathologist [url] => hccd_speech_pathologist [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 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Array ( [id] => 281 [title] => Dialysis Technician [url] => hcc_dialysis_technician [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 0 [menuPosition] => 1 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) [50] => Array ( [id] => 282 [title] => Medical Sonographer [url] => hcc_med_sonographer [typeID] => 2 [catID] => 1 [subcatID] => 237 [parentsubcatID] => 0 [menuPosition] => 1 [isChild] => 0 [inMenu] => 0 ) ) [q] => 0 [j] => 0 [i] => 1 [submenu] => [thisSubCat] => 0 [title1] => [title2] => [scenario] => grey [sm] => 51 [leftmenu1] => [leftmenu2] => [leftmenu3] => [staticleftmenu1] =>
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[style] => [testTitle] => Healthcare Career Directory [item] => )