Emphysema is a debilitating lung disease primarily caused by smoking. Chemicals in the tobacco form a crust over air sacs in the lungs over time and the victim cannot completely inhale or exhale. They cannot get enough oxygen and therefore, struggle for breath even when they are not active.

21st Century Science Standards

21st Century Themes Addressed by CyberSurgeons Problem-based and Case-based Learning Modules

CyberSurgeons PBL and CBL modules reflect a holistic view of 21st century teaching and learning that combines a focus on 21st century student outcomes (a blending of specific skills, content knowledge, expertise and literacies) with innovative support systems to help students master the multi-dimensional abilities required of them in the 21st century.

Health Literacy

CyberSurgeons students should:

• Obtain, interpret and understand basic health information and services and use such information in ways that are health enhancing.
• Understand preventive physical and mental health measures, including proper diet, nutrition exercise, risk avoidance and stress reduction.
• Use available ifnromation to make appropriate health-related decisions
• Establish and monitor personal and family health goals

Learning and Innovation Skills

Students should:

• Use various types of reasoning (inductive, deductive, etc.)
• Analyze how parts of a whole interact with each other to produce overall outcomes in complex systems
• Effectively analyse and evaluate evidence, arguments, claims and beliefs
• Interpret information and draw conclusions based on the best analysis
• Identify and ask significant questions that clarify various points of view and lead to better solutions
• Communicate effectively in diverse environments
• Demonstrate ability to work effectively and respectfully with diverse teams
• Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work and value the individual contributions made by each team member

Information, Media and Technology Skills

Students should:

• Evaluate information critically and competently
• Use information accurately and creatively for the issue or problem at hand
• Manage the flow of information from a wide variety of sources

Life and Career Skills

Students should:

• Adapt to varied roles, jobs, responsibilities, schedules, and context
• Work effectively in a climate of ambiguity and changing priorities
• Be flexible
• Interact effectively with others
• Conduct themselves in a respectable, professional manner

Leadership and Responsibility

Students should:

• Use interpersonal and problem-solving skills to influence and guide others toward a goal
• Leverage strengths of others to accomplish a common goal
• Act responsibility with the interests of the larger community in mind